Saturday, July 11, 2020

Why Do You Need Persuasive Essay Topics?

Why Do You Need Persuasive Essay Topics?If you're not using a set of persuasive essay topics, you could be losing your credibility as an educator. Why? Because people are very wary of teachers who are coming out with an opinion, and they don't want to accept the expert word as fact.But a great teacher is someone who's willing to make mistakes and admit to being wrong, in order to help students and their first-rate educational institution. This could be hard, because sometimes you've heard that the goal of educators is to 'own' the class. Sure, the goal is admirable, but there are other ways of doing things, like with students, so that you can develop your teaching skills. Just like any successful businessman, you have to learn how to use the tools that you have at your disposal.Of course, if you've just learned how to be a teacher and you don't have the right persuasion tools to get your point across, then you might as well give up and hand over the keys to the school to a secretary. And in this case, every student would be unhappy, because you didn't get their attention. So, whether you want to admit it or not, you have to make sure that you're able to use some persuasive essay topics to help you to teach, and also to help you do better.The first way that you can use persuasive essay topics is to bring in specific information. You need to draw in your students with specific information, and make them want to know more. In fact, this is why you should start off by using a specific topic for the whole semester.It's the subject of your class, and you need to be able to learn a little about it. After all, you're the professor, and the class is yours. Use that to your advantage by drawing in your students with a specific topic for the whole semester.After you start teaching with specific topics, you'll be able to start building rapport with your students. The whole point of teaching is to make your students feel comfortable around you, and to show them that you und erstand their needs and wants. By making this bond, your students will be more willing to share what they're learning with you, which will help you become a better teacher.Last, but certainly not least, you need to recognize your capacity as a subject matter expert. You need to take the time to really explore the topic that you're teaching, and learn as much as you can about it. For instance, if you're teaching a particular subject, and you see that it's still being taught incorrectly, then you should write about it.Once you have done this, you'll be able to figure out new ways to approach the subject, and to expose students to ideas that they wouldn't ordinarily encounter. Remember, this is a huge part of getting your point across and becoming a persuasive essay topics writer.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Gender Roles in Sandra Cisneros and Maxine Hong...

Sandra Cisneros and Maxine Hong Kingston: Gender roles Feminism is often spoken of in generic terms, but the novels of the Hispanic-American author Sandra Cisneros and the Chinese-American Maxine Hong Kingston highlight how, even though the oppression of women may be a nearly universal construct, this oppression inevitably takes on very particular forms, depending upon the social, national, and political context of the authors. The authors collective works highlight the struggle of women from historically-discriminated minorities to celebrate their cultures, even while acknowledging these cultures patriarchal imperfections. In The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros, the reader is able to see how the anxieties about becoming adult women afflict the lives of young, Hispanic girls, particularly the poor, proud intelligent narrator Esperanza. In Esperanzas world, her Hispanic culture demands that women be sexual, yet punishes them for being so. In one scene, Esperanza and her friends speculate about how they need hips to make babies and try to laugh about their budding femininity, which seems, in the novel to be fraught with peril. In another scene they try on a pair of high heels for fun, which they eventually discard because of the unwanted attention this garners. The examples of women who lose their freedom because of love and marriage are many in the novel, such as Rafaela, who is locked in her apartment and can only communicate with the outside world through her

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Genetic Engineering in Agriculture Essay - 2099 Words

Genetic Engineering in Agriculture Whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before would deserve better of Mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together. -The King of Brobdingnag, Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift, 17271 Introduction Genetically engineered foods are the rage of the day for farmers across the world. Farmers are able to grow larger, tastier, more colorful foods that are more readily available and attractive to consumers. At the same time, farmers actually have been saving money because their crops are now more resistant to drought, frost, insect infestations, and bruising during†¦show more content†¦Nowadays, it is a more complicated process (although you could still use the same process as before), where people choose to modify some of the genes and cells to generate a new genetically engineered plant. The process of altering the genome through transfer of a gene or genes from another species or breed is know as transgenics3. Transgenics has allowed us to speed up the evolution of plants and animals to solve worldwide problems to benefit humanity. What Are the Benefits? Benefits for cloning and genetic engineering in agriculture are abundant. Typically tropical plants can be grown in in colder areas of the world. Water-starved drought stricken desert areas will be able to produce food with a lot less water allowing needy people access to a supply of food. Large volumes of pesticides will no longer be needed as much with insect resistant crops. This not only saves the farmers money, but it also saves the worlds water supply from an additional very dangerous water pollutant. Finally, crops with tougher outer skins that resist bruising,Show MoreRelatedGenetic Engineering in Agriculture Essay3427 Words   |  14 PagesGenetic Engineering in Agriculture Among the millions of species that inhabit the planet, only twenty species provide ninety percent of the human food supply (Montgomery 2000). Since the introduction of genetic engineering, however, livestock and crops have a more productive future. Transfer of engineered genes from organism to organism occurs through hybridization, conjugation, and transformation in microorganisms. By the substitution of genes into agricultural species, biodiversityRead MoreThe Effects of Genetic Engineering on Agriculture Essay1291 Words   |  6 PagesGenetic engineering is a way in which specific genes for an animal or plant can be extracted, and reproduced to form a new animal or plant. These new organisms will express the required trait for that gene. This practice is a very controversial topic within the scientific world. 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Genetic Engineering Is Commonly Found In Agriculture897 Words   |  4 Pages Trials Genetic engineering is commonly found in agriculture and within the past few years scientists began animal experimentation, but this technology is now touching upon human embryos. â€Å"The first field experiments of food crops that had been genetically modified using recombinant DNA technology began in 1987† (Range, Gabriel).The trial consisted of extending the shelf life of tomatoes. Animals are the next trial class â€Å"animals that have been safely genetically engineered (GE) include cattleRead MoreThe Use Of Genetic Engineering On Agriculture And Food Production Essay1622 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction : The use of genetic engineering techniques in agriculture and food production is seen as an exciting and valuable development by many people who welcome the improvements in production efficiency that they offer to farmers and the enhanced nutritional value that is envisioned to benefit consumers. Others, however, are objecting strongly, raising environmental, food safety, and ethical concerns. A majority of people in Western Europe, Japan and Australia, for example, want at leastRead MoreDustin Peacher . Engl 1302.C09. Professor Mccovery. April985 Words   |  4 Pagesof Genetic Engineering and it s Ethics How far would you go to save human lives and to progress society for those in need? The benefits of genetic engineering have shown to outweigh the ethical and environmental consequences associated within the field. Genetic Engineering has shown to provide major benefits in the field of medicine and agriculture but is faced with extreme criticism and backlash, specifically on the basis of ethics. To understand the modern concept over field of the Genetic EngineeringRead MoreGenetic Engineering : The Technique Of Producing Recombinant Hybrid Dna By Combining Two Different Strands Of Dna1731 Words   |  7 Pagesgroup for their help in improving and reviewing this paper. Finally I would like to thank Abdul Ahad Memon for proof reading my paper. Abstract Genetic engineering is the technique of producing recombinant hybrid DNA by combining two different strands of DNA. The fundamental concept of genetic engineering is gene cloning; the technique of altering the genetic structure of an organism. Gene cloning has four basic processes, namely cutting : the process of isolating the required starnd of DNA, modificationRead MoreGenetically Modified Organisms Are Dangerous Or Bad For Our Citizen s Health1025 Words   |  5 Pagesscientists have been working on developing new forms of technology regarding genetic modification. This involves the transfer of genes from one plant or animal, to another similar specimen. Furthermore, with the help of genetically modified organisms, scientists are now able to help prevent pollution, increase crop productivity, as well as aid in medicinal purposes. To begin, due to a past study that linked genetic engineering to the following possibilities such as stomach inflammation, the transferRead MoreDna And Ethics Of Recombinant Dna1601 Words   |  7 Pages Recombinant DNA and Ethics Brooke Boland BIO/410 - Genetics October 23, 2017 Miranda Gauthier Recombinant DNA and Ethics Recombinant DNA technology has become a powerful influence to many fields including medicine, pharmaceuticals and agriculture. Genetic modifications of plants, animals and other organisms have allowed scientists to improve the quality of human life. As genetic engineering continues to rapidly grow, many ethical, social and legal issues arise evaluating the risksRead MoreEssay about Should Genetic Engineering Be Controlled by Law?992 Words   |  4 PagesShould Genetic Engineering Be Controlled by Law? â€Å"Just as the success of a corporate body in making money need not set the human condition ahead, neither does every scientific advance automatically make our lives more meaningful† ( Professor George Wald, Noble Prize winning biologist, The Dangers of Genetic Engineeering 1976, p.45) . Genetic engineering is the direct manipulation of an organism’s genes. It uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the

Space Power Essay Research Paper Space Propulsion free essay sample

Space Power Essay, Research Paper Space Propulsion RESEARCH I/II LARRY PECAN FINAL REPORT 9-27-98 INTRODUCTION The followers is a research undertaking on Space Vehicle Propulsion. It shall dwell of four subdivisions, each discoursing specific subjects. Section One lays out the basic thoughts of rocketry. Section Two compares Rocket Propulsion Systems, and shows the footing for the comparing. It besides shows how each particular Rocket System works and Section Three gives a description of how Space Propulsion has evolved and contains a decision. Section 1 The Basics Section One is a brief description of the basic belongingss of Rocket Systems. It defines the key footings and shows how a basic projectile works. It besides shows the State if The Art. I have chosen to make my undertaking on infinite vehicle propulsion. Basically, this means that my research shall be based chiefly on rocketry. Rocketry is a manner of propulsion that has developed in legion ways since it was foremost used to impel pyrotechnics in the sixteenth century. It has emerged into an highly complicated scientific discipline that few really understand. Most infinite rocketry in America is used in NASA ( National Aeronautics and Space Association ) infinite undertakings. NASA, a authorities association that focuses on infinite geographic expedition, is the chief user of projectile engineering. It is used largely to power their orbiters and birds into infinite. Pushing an object that weighs every bit much as a infinite bird does straight perpendicular until get awaying the Earth s atmosphere requires a enormous sum of power. This is why NASA uses projectiles. Rockets are basically the most powerful signifiers of propulsion there is today. Space Vehicle Propulsion is based projectile engines. The basic rule of projectile engine is that when fuel is burned in the engine, the reaction mass is expelled at high velocities. As a consequence of Newton s jurisprudence of action and reaction this pushes the vehicle in the opposite way of the 1 in whic h the reaction mass is traveling. Thrust is the force that the engine exerts on all infinite behind it in order to force the vehicle frontward. Efficiency is the manner that the quality of projectile engines is measured by. It is measured by the clip it takes for one kg of propellent to make one kg of push. The end of my research is to happen out what makes these engines more efficient. In rocketry, the province of the art is highly difficult to specify, since there are so many different signifiers of rocketry runing from liquid propellent projectiles to pyrotechnics. The province of the art though is likely atomic powered projectiles. It is much more efficient because it does non utilize chemical burning like most projectiles do. Alternatively NFRRs ( Nuclear Fission Reactor Rockets ) heat H in a fission reactor which expels the propellent at vesicating velocities. Much research is being done with NFRRs. They are still extremely experimental because of the dangers that could be ass ociated with them. The NERVA ( Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application ) was one of the most extended NFRR research undertakings, nevertheless it failed because of the inability figure out an attack to seting the research into a developmental phase. Section 2 Specific Rocket Propulsion Systems Section One has laid the foundation for farther research in the are of rocketry. Section two shall discourse belongingss of efficiency in more deepness, it shall put out the types of projectiles in being now. It shall besides demo which type of projectile is the most efficient. After this subdivision, the following one shall depict how the grounds for these specific projectiles efficiency and depending on the result of that study, the subject of the 4th shall be decided. EFFICIENCY Efficiency is the most of import portion of my research as yet. Since the object of my research is to happen out which type of projectiles are the most efficient and why, the reader of this paper must hold a b asic apprehension of efficiency. Once this is established, new definitions will come into drama, all of these shall be important in the apprehension of the paper. Footings Needed To Understand Efficiency G- a unit of acceleration [ equal to 9.8 meters/second/second ( speed uping at a gait of 9.8 metres per 2nd every second ) ] Specific Impulse ( Isp ) A measuring in seconds of efficiency. Properties of Efficiency Efficiency is the most accurate index of projectiles public presentation. As stated in the aforesaid definitions, specific urge is the basic unit of measuring of projectile efficiency. Isp is found by spliting the exhaust speed by g ( definition besides mentioned above ) . Since speed is measured in m/s ( metres per second ) and each g is equal to 9.8 m/s/s ( metres per 2nd every second ) , the footings cancel to go forth merely a unit in seconds. The resulting figure, is the continuance of clip for which one kg of propellent can bring forth one kg of push. Therefore, a hi gher figure represents a better, and more efficient projectile. To give the reader an thought of the mean Isp of several type of projectiles, I have listed some mean figures for efficiency of certain types of projectiles below. Average Efficiencies of Certain Rockets Next, I have listed the Isp values for some basic types of projectiles. After that I shall explicate some of the most good known types of projectiles. Basic Rocket Types An RPS ( projectile propulsion system ) is a powerplant that pushes a vehicle frontward by chuck outing affair that is stored within the vehicle. This affair is called propellent. The propellent is the most important portion of traveling a vehicle through infinite. Their energy beginning, the vehicles they are used on, and the type of propellent sort the specific types of systems. Liquid Propellant Rockets All LPRs ( Liquid Propelled Rockets ) contain the same basic devices. The following paragraph shall discourse these maps and analyze their intent. Th e first such device is the thrust chamber. The thrust chamber contains an injector, a burning chamber and a nose. The thrust chamber is the topographic point where the propellents are injected, atomized, so assorted and eventually burned to organize reaction merchandises in the signifier of gas. Following, the merchandises are accelerated and ejected at highly high speeds to make push. The injector is a series of pipes that allow the liquid propellent to travel into the burning chamber chamber to be made into push while atomising and blending them. The exhaust nose is the last measure in the releasing of push. It allows the hot gas to spread out and so accelerates them to supersonic speeds. On some vehicles, the nozzle Acts of the Apostless as a maneuvering mechanism by puting it on an electronic axis for which it can be turned by an machine-controlled guidance wheel. There are two major types of provender systems used by LPRs ; one uses pumps to travel propellents to burning Chambe rss ; the other, uses high force per unit area to throw out propellents from their armored combat vehicles. On most infinite vehicles the engines are mounted in braces at the margin of the trade. Normally to opposite confronting thrust Chamberss are controlled automatedly to turn the ship. Generally, a lower limit of 12 thrust Chamberss is required for turning. Solid Propellant Rockets Solid Propellant Rockets ( SPRs ) contains a immense figure of types of engines. The propellent that is to be burned is held in the burning chamber. The propellent charge ( grain ) contains chemical elements for complete combustion. When it is ignited, it burns on all its exposed sides. If the design of the grain is changed, so less can be exposed ; the less open, the less fuel burned. The mean combustion rate is around 1.8 milliliters per second. The rate usually depends on the propellent ingredients. The more chamber force per unit area, the more propellent burnt. The manner to do an efficient SPR i s to pack as much solid propellent into a chamber volume as possible. Theoretically, it would be ideal to fire the propellent like a cigar, from one terminal to the other. For this ground, scientists created an end-burning grain, which has proved highly successful. Electric Rockets There are three types of electric propulsion systems (EPS); the three include electromagnetic, electrothermal and electrostatic. They are, in some ways more a rocket of the future then one of the present, somewhat like the NERVA project (see next section). In the electrothermal system the propellant is heated or vaporized electric heaters. The hot gas is then expanded through a nozzle the way it is in a chemical rocket. In an electrostatic system, interacting electrostatic fields and small charged particles such as colloidal particles achieve acceleration. In an electromagnetic rocket, acceleration is achieved by placing propellant plasma (a high temperature, electrically natural gas that contains electrons, ions and neutral molecular species) in an electromagnetic field thus causing a reaction that releases thrust. Nuclear Rockets Unlike the aforementioned rockets, nuclear rockets do not generate its power through chemical combustion. The way its power is formed, is through nuclear fission. It heats a propellant like hydrogen in a fission reactor and the explosion expels the propellant at amazing speeds, which exceed twice what any other rocket can produce. Its efficiency rating is around 850, as compared to the 450 of the next best type, the cryogenic rocket. Unfortunately due to the extreme dangers of nuclear fission inside a shuttle, the main project for researching the nuclear rockets, NERVA, was scrubbed. Most likely, in the future, scientists will devise a plan to minimize the risks, whereupon research will begin again. SECTION 3 A History INTRODUCTION The third section of this report shall begin by indicating the steps in which rocketry was created, as to allow the reader of this paper to better understand the way rockets work. It shall show the works of Tsiolkovsky, Goddard, Oberth and a few others. The report shall then end in a detailed conclusion. The conclusion will be based on the summary and discuss all that has been written. It shall end in giving opinions as to t he future uses of the specific areas found in the research. Development of Modern Rocketry EARLY HISTORY In around 1232 AD, in China, rockets were created. During the war with the Mongols, the Chinese would strap an early form of gunpowder to the shaft of an arrow. This made them fly longer and faster than any of the regular arrows that the Mongols used. About ten years later, in Europe, another major discovery was made. An Englishman, Robert Bacon, created a more practical formula for gunpowder. He did this by mixing 41.2 parts saltpeter, 29.4 parts charcoal and 29.4 parts sulfur. He was able to distill saltpeter, which produces oxygen, to allow the rocket to burn faster. In the 18th century, the British encounter encountered rocket warfare with India. The Indians probably learned the secret of rocket treat from Arab traders in the 17th century. The Indians, who were led by Hyder Ali, gave thousands of men the task of throwing rockets. The rockets were first thrown, then propelled itself. They attached an eight foot long bamboo stalk to six pound iron tube filled with fuse and powder. The rockets were able to fly up to 1.5 miles. Modern Discoveries Tsiolkovsky Tsiolkovsky, a Russian teacher, established that a rocket would work in the vacuum of space, in 1883. In 1903, he wrote a book explaining how space travel was possible, using liquid propelled rockets. He created drawings of possible space ships propelled by either liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen and kerosene. The sketches also show valves to transport the liquid propellant into a combustion chamber and showed how vanes could be created in the exhaust for steering. He also illustrated the crew lying on their backs in a pressurized cabin in order to withstand the pressure of such high speeds. Tsiolkovsky also thought of rocket staging. Rocket staging is a series of rockets that fire one after the other. When one finishes and the other fires, the useless rocket is jettisoned. He thought this was the only way to put heavy objects such as satellites into space. Goddard Although Tsiolkovsky thought up the ideas of advanced rocketry, still more had to be considered, and it had to become reality. The next pioneer, was the father of American rocketry, Robert Goddard. He first, created a bazooka type rocket. The bazooka was fairly large solid-propellant rocket. In 1919, he wrote a text called A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. Two years later, he bagan to experiment with the liquid fuels that Tsiolkovsky. In 1926, Goddard finally launched the first liquid propelled rocket. It was fueled by gasoline and liquid oxygen. It rose to a height of 41 feet and traveled at 60 miles per hour. It only traveled 56 meters but it set the foundation for the future of rocketry. In May 1935, he released a rocket that featured gyro controlled exhaust vanes which pushed it to travel 1.5 miles above the ground at a totally unprecedented 700 miles per hour. GERMAN ROCKET SCIENTISTS In 192 3 a German rocket scientist Hermann Oberth published The Rocket Into Planetary Space. He favored liquid propellants, as Goddard, because of their power. His experimentation inspired the creation of the Society for Space Travel. The society passionately experimented with ways to improve the liquid propellant rocket. On February 21, 1931, a member of The Society for Space Travel, Johannes Winkler, launched the second liquid fuel rocket. Winkler s rocket was propelled by liquid methane and liquid oxygen. It failed totally, going a mere ten feet forward. Three weeks later another rocket ascended to about 2000 feet. The entire Society for Space Travel began working on two rocket series, the Mirak and Repulsor. The late model Repulsors could reach an altitude of 1 mile. When The Society for Space Travel ran out of money, they made a demonstration of the Repulsor for the German Army. A member, Werner Von Braun compiled some statistics for the army who gave it to Hitler. They realized that this did not violate the treaty which did not allow them to build airplanes. Hitler started the Army Weapons Department. Von Braun was placed in charge of rocket development. Within a few years Von Braun was experimenting with highly developed rockets and was firing them in secret at the island of Birkum. In 1934 he created two rockets, that could ascend to over 1.5 miles. After that, The Society for Space Travel fell apart due to financial problems. In 1937, a rocket research station was constructed on the Baltic coast. Here the Germans created such rockets as the famous V-1 Buzz Bombs, and the mammoth V-2 which were really rocket-powered flying bombs. Conclusion In this research, it has been demonstrated how all rocket engines work. It illustrates how propellants are moved into a combustion chamber, and expelled at extremely high speeds. It shows the properties of efficiency, the basic measure by which all rockets are compared. It shows how efficiency is measure by specific impuls e, which is calculated by the propellants exhaust velocity divided by g. It has given a basic comparison as to the efficiency of various rockets and has shown the reasons for being at their respective ranks. Also shown, is the pioneering of rocketry starting in the mid 1200s. All this has shown the basic properties of space propulsion Bibliography http://www.asi.org/adb/04/03/09/01/ – the Rocket Engine Specifications page from the Artemis Project (http://www.asi.org/ ) Data Book http://www.orbireport.com/Data.html -the Orbital Report News Agency’s Launch Vehicle database http://leonardo.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/home.html – JPL’s Mission Spacecraft Library http://solar.rtd.utk.edu/%7Emwade/spaceflt.htm – Mark Wade’s â€Å"Encyclopedia Astronautica† http://www.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/technology/sts-newsref/stsref-toc.html – The Space Shuttle Reference Manual http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/ds1/tech/sep.html – Solar electric propulsion on th e Deep Space 1 probe Rockets Sutton, George P Groliers Online Encyclopedia

Thursday, April 23, 2020

This Boys Life Essays - English-language Films, This Boys Life

This Boy's Life # # This Boys Life In both the film and the book This Boys Life Tobias Wolff is surrounded by bad role models and terrible father figures. Wolff and his mother are constantly looking for the complete family life and find themselves in a series of bad situations on their quest. In the book Tobys relationship with his mother Rosemary is illustrated in a clear and deeper manner but the movie just didnt seem to focus on it enough. This paper will evaluate the portrayal of Tobys relationship with his mother and the men in their lives as told in the memoir and the film. The relationship that Toby has with his mother is a very strong bond. That is evident in the film and the book. But what Toby lacks in both versions of this story is a good father figure, which his mother seems to be always on a journey to find for him. Early in the book Toby has several misadventures with bad influences, whether they are friends or father-like figures. Roy seems to be one of the first influences to really catch the readers eye. He follows Toby and his mother all the way to Utah from Florida mostly just to be with Rosemary. Roy uses Toby to get to Rosemary in many ways, for example when he buys Toby the rifle or when he takes him to spy on Rosemary at work and follow her home. Roy makes this seem like it is a game to Toby and befriends him this way. This portrayal of Roy is very well done in the film, too. To me this is a very important part of the story in general, because after you read the book and see the film, almost all the men who come into Tobys life treat hi m in some way like Roy treats him. Anything it took to get to his mother seems to be the theme of the story. This behavior would have a very traumatizing effect on any young child at that time in their life, but with the influence Tobys mother has on him he is always trying to find a way out of bad situations. Another example to this theme would be the chapter in the book when Toby and his mother go to Alkai Point to watch the mock naval battle and they run into the two men. They had left Roy not long before that and moved to Seattle so they could escape him again. This must have worked, finally, because Roy does not try to find them for the rest of the story. This chapter is not used in the film and probably could have been omitted from the book, but it described even more the willingness of Rosemary to fall into any relationship that came her way. Toby seems to be jealous of these men giving his mother their attention and when they notice this they channel most of their attention on him. As the reader you automatica lly know what these guys are after, not the love for a boy or his favorite hobbies, but after the mother who just happens to be with him. And by acting like they are interested in Toby, they deceive Rosemary into thinking they are just nice guys. Eventually Rosemary gives in and meets with them that night and the outcome is very similar to her relationship with Roy. She comes home crying, feeling used, and taken advantage of. Moving forward very quickly, like the movie does. Rosemary is very quick to find someone new to be involved with, in comes Dwight. Dwights character is portrayed very well in both the film and the book. Toby still does not have a father figure in his life and you can sense Rosemarys urgency about getting one for him. Toby has now become a real troublemaker at school and on the streets. Wolff describes times when he and his friends would slam bikes into cars and steal and cause various problems. These are normal things for kids to do but some of those instances may have been a little extreme. Rosemary does not feel that Toby is a bad kid, even though she hears

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Jon Kabat-Zinn Essays

Jon Kabat-Zinn Essays Jon Kabat-Zinn Essay Jon Kabat-Zinn Essay Jon Kabat-Zinn, in his most recent book: Coming to Our Senses: Healing Ourselves and the Mind Through Mindfulness is an important addition to the concept of self discovery. In an age when more and more people are looking for the all healing â€Å"self help book,† Kabat-Zinn offers a  more serious and scholarly look at the benefits of meditation, motivation, mindfulness and the ability to use them in every day life, not just to avoid stress in one’s life, but to reach a higher plain of understanding that is beyond what society has trained our minds to absorb every day. Kabat-Zinn teaches the reader to retrain their mind and to erase the years of harmful conditioning that many in the West have experienced. Kabat-Zinn brings together the many understandings of the self, not just from the Buddhist definitions but uses Western thinkers as well as cites them in his arguments. Some of his favorite Western sources included Einstein and Henry David Thoreau to name only a few. In the end, a book is most successful when the reader can take away from the work of the author, something of practical use in their life. Coming to Our Senses is one such book. In the areas of conflict  and conflict resolution, empathy, mindfulness, meditation and the authenticity of one’s self, Coming to Our Senses offers a helpful guide and reminder of what one can truly be when they allow their mind to be relaxed, void of any outside factors and to let it roam free from any such impediments. Only then can the self become alive and be allowed to roam free and which will help the individual to reach their full potential in all of the above mentioned categories. One of the most important points that Kabat-Zinn includes in his book is the concept of meditation. He defines meditation as: â€Å"a way of being, or, you could say, a way of seeing, a way of knowing, even a way of loving.†[1] In much of this chapter in meditation, Kabati-Zinn tries to dispel the common myths and misunderstandings about meditation which are so very common in Western thought. The growth of yoga and other alternative ways in which to become mentally and spiritually well, it has made some progress in pealing away the erroneous assumptions about meditation. In the event that the reader is not aware of this recent growth, Kabat-Zinn repeats what meditation is not: â€Å"Meditation is not relaxation spelt differently†¦. Mindfulness is the embrace of any practice, pain, or anguish, or for that matter boredom or impatience of frustration or anxiety or tension in the body†¦Ã¢â‚¬ [2] Kabati-Zinn goes on to try to explain meditation as: â€Å"It is the non- clinging, and therefore the clear perceiving and the willingness to act appropriately within whatever circumstance are arising that constitute this way of being that we are calling meditation.†[3]   Kabati-Zinn repeats that meditation is not just the ability to flip a switch in the brain and somehow, one is in a perpetual state of meditation. This is a simplified and incorrect belief on meditation and one which is perpetuated by the media and the culture of the West. Kabat-Zinn has been credited with trying to bridge the gap between the Western and Eastern thought and through his series of books on meditation and the self, many believe, has come very close in achieving this most lofty goal. My personal experience on meditation, I used to think, was relatively new. In a sense, I was enjoying the benefits of meditation without making a conscious effort to be meditating. This seems to be the reality of many people in America. Americans are now busier now then at any time in history. Despite having more cost and time saving appliances at our disposal than ever before, Americans have used these inventions to actually make people busier today than in the past. This, often times, leads to stress and therefore the need for periods of meditation are that much more important. Even as a teenager, I enjoyed being busy and productive but could not cope with my every day requirements and needs unless, at some time during that day, I was alone with my thoughts. Quiet walks at night, regardless of the weather, in which the events of the day are summed up and reflected upon, was always an essential part of my day. I discovered that those days in which I felt that I did not have the time for such things, I end up being more irritable and made careless decisions in the coming days. The positive effect of meditating on the events of the previous day or week and attempting to group them in a passive and indirect way, completely in tune with the guidelines of meditation, I found to be advantageous in every sense of the word. Therefore, not only is my opinion favorable towards the need for meditation, but I have seen it first hand in my own life and there existed a major difference in the level of happiness that I had when I made a habit of setting aside a portion of the day in which to meditate around my thoughts or more commonly, to just let my mind roam free; completely void of the numerous stimuli which often times, impedes one’s level of happiness in their daily lives. One of the next concepts which Kabat-Zinn covers in his book Coming to Our Senses is the idea of mindfulness. â€Å"Mindfulness meditation is most commonly taught and practiced within the context of Buddhism, its essence is universal†¦ Yet it is no accident that mindfulness comes out of Buddhism, which has as its overriding concerns, the relief of suffering and the dispelling of illusions.†[4] In this, Kabat-Zinn ties in the usefulness of mindfulness and meditation as it relates to the health and well being of the body and mind. In the introduction, Kabat-Zinn reminds the reader: â€Å"The journey towards health and sanity is nothing less than an invitation to wake up to the fullness of our lives as if they actually mattered.†[5] In a day when the cost of health care is skyrocketing and drug companies are charging insane amounts on single prescription doses; so much to the degree that often times, people have to chose between eating that day or taking one of the do zens of medications that their doctor has prescribed for them; not only for a month but many times, for the rest of their lives and as a result, placing the individual in a perpetual state of fiscal, mental and physical dependence upon an outside source other than one’s own mind. Kabat-Zinn teaches that through the preventative measure of defeating stress and in the pursuit of a deeper understanding of one’s own self, many of these diseases can be avoided. In each of the eight major sections of the Coming to Our Senses, Kabat-Zinn explores the many different areas of one’s ability to heal oneself. The power of the mind and the advantages of it being in a continued restful state, according to Kabat-Zinn, are advantageous on many different levels. In the spirit of this, Kabat-Zinn has developed an eight week program in which many of these issues are tackled. In 1979 I started a Stress Reduction Clinic. Thinking back to that era, I ask myself now, What stress? so much has our world changed since then, so much has the pace of life increased and the vagaries and dangers of the world come to our doorstep as never before. If looking squarely at our personal situation and circumstances and finding novel and imaginative ways to work with them in the service of health and healing was important then, it is infinitely more important and urgent now, inhabiting as we do a world that has been thrown into heightened chaos and speed in the unfolding of events, even as it has become far more interconnected and smaller.†[6] Its main focus is stress, the individual being able to identify it and to avoid its physical and mental dangers that stress can lead to in the individual. Kabat-Zinn also writes: â€Å"Thich Nhat Hanh, the Vietnamese Zen master, mindfulness teacher, poet, and peace activist, aptly points out that one reason we might want to pra ctice mindfulness is that most of the time we are unwittingly practicing its opposite. Every time we get angry we get better at being angry and reinforce the anger habit. When it is really bad, we say we see red, which means we dont see accurately what is happening at all, and so, in that moment, you could say we have lost our mind. Every time we become self-absorbed, we get better at becoming self-absorbed and going unconscious.†[7] This moves into the practical use of being mindful of one’s own self. This will become truer, I feel, once I get older but it is a well established fact that stress leads to a wearing down of the body and as a result, makes the individual more suspect able to sickness and disease. This is an opinion of Kabat-Zinn to which I completely concur with as I have experienced such events in my own life and as a result, with the help of Coming to Our Senses, is more likely to identify these stressors in my life and their effects upon my own life. One example of this would be the time in which I was studying for my finals during on particular semester. I had made the mistake of many of my classmates in the fact that the knowledge that the final would be comprehensive was told to us a full month before the final was to be administered. I had been careless in my preparation for these examinations and had not used my time wisely or effectively. As a result, and which millions of college students from around the world have experienced as well, I was stressed out and rushed during that last week leading up to finals.   I was worried about the marks that I would receive in these classes; all of which were difficult classes which did not deal with my subjects of familiarity. As a result, during that last week, I was short tempered, was prone to anger and did not have a complete control of my emotions and senses. However, what would be a more lasting effect would be the average marks which I received on my exams as well as being physically and mentally run down by the time the process was complete. I did not have a heart attack or suffer a mental breakdown; two of the more serious results of an overstressed life, but by the end of final’s week, and perhaps even in the middle of my exams, I felt sick and run down. I had experienced high levels of stress in my life which affected my sleep pattern. This in turn, affected my mental and physical state which resulted in receiving only average marks on my exam. This did not stop the worry and st ress in my life but perpetuated it as I now began to worry about how these low grades would impede my future academic career and if it would help to set the course for a less than stellar academic career. Within this experience, there are obvious elements of responsibility and the importance of planning but there will also occur in one’s own life, elements of stress which came about from no fault of the individual. In those instances as well as in situations which could have been avoided, being in touch with one’s mindfulness and knowing the role that it plays in one’s life, is not only helpful, but essential according to Kabat-Zinn, if the individual wishes to remain mentally and physically stable. Another main point of Coming to Our Senses by Jon Kabat-Zinn is the idea that successful meditation and mindfulness is not an easy process which many believe to be so. This is an all important process which requires constant attention and effort on the part of the individual. If the book could be summed up in three words, they would have to be: â€Å"Stop, look and listen!† as these are repeated in Coming to Our Senses.   Successful meditation, despite there existing more knowledge on the subject than ever before in the West, is met with more hurdles and challenges than ever before as there are more stressors and competitors for an individual’s time than ever before. In one of the most important and insightful passages in the book, Kabat-Zinn gives what may seem to be a simple recipe for contentment but is really a profound statement and one which many people will try but fail to truly achieve: â€Å"So, from the point of view of awareness, any state of mind is a med itative state. Anger or sadness is just as interesting and useful and valid to look into as enthusiasm or delight, and far more valuable than a blank mind, a mind that is insensate, out of touch. Anger, fear, terror, sadness, resentment, impatience, enthusiasm, delight, confusion, disgust, contempt, envy, rage, lust, even dullness, doubt, and torpor, in fact all mind states and body states are occasions to know ourselves better if we can stop, look, and listen, in other words, if we can come to our senses and be intimate with what presents itself in awareness in any and every moment.†[8] When this is realized and understood, the individual possesses a profound advantage over his neighbor who does not realize that often times, people are their worst enemy. When one is able to listen to one’s own self to a greater degree, than that same individual cannot help but listen to others more deeply in the process. This is very helpful in conflict and conflict resolution. Often times, disputes between individuals or even entire countries, can come from an inability or unwillingness to fully listen to the other side. All over the world, disputes are beginning and often times, will have lasting effects, all because the individuals involved were not willing to listen to the other side. Kabat-Zinn, when talking about the importance of mindfulness, states: â€Å"By the same token, it has an equal capacity to influence the larger world within which we are seamlessly embedded, including our family, our work, the society as a whole and how we see ourselves as a people, what I am calling the body politic, and the body of the world, of all of us together on this planet. And all this can come about through your own experience of the practice of mi ndfulness by virtue of that much embedded ness and the reciprocal relationships between inner and outer, and between being and doing.†[9] It is important and many would say, self-evident that one recognizes the importance that mindfulness has, not only with then individuals involved, but in relation to the conflicts which currently plague the world. In the same way, one who implements these practices into their own daily lives, will have a greater sense of empathy towards others. Kabat-Zinn states: â€Å"See if you can give yourself gifts that may be true blessings, such as self-acceptance, or some time each day with no purpose. Practice feeling deserving enough to accept these gifts without obligation-to simply receive from yourself, and from the universe.[10] In this sense, people who respect themselves more, cannot help but respect others in the process. This also ties into the need for meditation as only in those quiet and personal times of soul searching can one free their minds in order to concentrate on their relationship with themselves and others. Through self evaluation, one can then be more readily available to possess empathy for others. Those who know nothing of themselves and their senses, cannot hope to learn and communicate the hurts of others in any consistent and successful way. This, at least, has been my exp erience. Stress and an individual’s inability to know one’s self, is at the root of many problems, both mentally and physically, internally and externally, within a community and the world. Stress leads to a disconnect from the senses as well as the inability to listen to the needs of one’s own mind and body. Kabat- Zinn writes in Coming to Our Senses as a fitting summation: â€Å"But for the particular exploration we will be undertaking together in these pages and in our lives, I find it is both useful and illuminating to draw upon the work of those special people on our planet who devote themselves to the language of the mind and heart that we call poetry.†[11] In the same way some of the great navigators explored the world or how scientists explore aspects of this world which will forever remain a mystery to the lay observer, it is thus, equally important for the individual to explore their own mind through meditation and mindfulness. This will not occur overnig ht and the process is much more arduous than popular culture may lead the individual to believe. However, Kabat-Zinn believes, that those who seek the truth within their own mind and who implement mind-body therapies within their own lives, will not only have an advantage over those who do not, but will be able to communicate on a higher plane with those who practice similar techniques and thus,   will come to a deeper understanding of one’s own self as the true ability of each individual’s five separate senses. In order to achieve this, constant and consistent effort on the part of the individual is required. However, Kabat-Zinn believes that the effort is easily worth the reward.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Redesigned SAT Test Format

Redesigned SAT Test Format    The Redesigned SAT test is more than just one giant exam. It is a compilation of smaller, timed segments that are subdivided by subject matter. Think of the test more like a novel with a few chapters. Just as it would be really difficult to read an entire book without having any stopping points, it would be difficult to take the SAT as one lengthy exam. Hence, the College Board decided to break it up into test sections.   Redesigned SAT Test Scoring Both the Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section and the Mathematics section are worth between 200 - 800 points, which is similar to the old SAT scoring system. Your composite score will land somewhere between 400 - 1600 on the exam. If you are anything like most of the country, your average composite score will be right around a 1090.   Need more details? Check out the Old SAT vs. Redesigned SAT Chart.   Redesigned SAT Format Section Time Questions Skills Tested Evidence-Based Reading 65 minutesBroken into four passages and one pair of passages from literature, historical documents, social sciences, and natural sciences. 52 multiple choice questions Reading closely, Citing contextual evidence, Determining central ideas and themes, Summarizing, Understanding relationships, Interpreting words and phrases in context, Analyzing word choice, purpose, point of view, and argument. Analyzing quantitative information and multiple texts. Mathematics 80 minutesBroken into Calculator and a No-Calculator sections 58 multiple choice questions and one section of grid-in questions Linear equations and systems of linear equations,Ratios, proportional relationships, percentages, and units, Probabilities, Algebraic expressions, Quadratic and other nonlinear equations, Creating, using, and graphing exponential, quadratic, and other nonlinear functions, Solving problems related to area and volume, Applying definitions and theorems related to lines, angles, triangles, and circles, Working with right triangles, the unit circle, and trigonometric functions Writing and Language 35 minutesBroken up into four passages from careers, history/social studies, humanities and science 44 multiple choice questions Development of ideas, Organization, Effective language use, Sentence structure, Conventions of usage, Conventions of punctuation Optional Essay 50 minutes 1 prompt that asks the reader to analyze the authors argument Comprehension of source text, Analysis of source text, Evaluation of the authors use of evidence, Support for claims or points made in the response, Focus on features of the text most relevant to addressing the task, Use of organization, varied sentence structure, precise word choice, consistent style and tone, and conventions    Things You Need to Know About the Redesigned SAT Rather than memorizing list after list of words you may never see or hear again, you simply will need to understand applicable, appropriate, and usable vocabulary in a passage of text based on the context in which the words are situated.  Vocabulary is much easier on the Redesigned SAT than it was in the past.  You will need to be able to interpret, draw conclusions from, and use any text youre given whether its an infographic, a multi-paragraph passage from literature, or even a career-related passage. What might this look like? Perhaps you will need to analyze a series of paragraphs to make sure they are grammatically and contextually correct or pair the information conveyed through a graphic with a passage to find the best answer.Although the SAT Essay is optional, most students will end up taking it. And if you do,  then you will need to be able to read a passage, pick apart an authors argument, then clearly analyze the authors stylistic choices, logic, and evidence in you r own essay. The essay is not simply one of those What do  you  think? types of essays! You will be asked to solve multi-step problems in science, social science, career scenarios, and other real-life contexts. You will also be asked to read a scenario presented in text form, then answer questions about it, then model it mathematically.